Beavertail Lighthouse, Jamestown Rhode Island

Beavertail Light is one of the oldest lighthouse sites in America. The successive lighthouses at Beavertail, set at a vital location, have helped ensure the safe transportation of passengers and goods in the Atlantic and Narragansett Bay for over 200 years. As the site of early experiments with gas illumination and fog signaling equipment, Beavertail has earned a place in the annals of science and invention. Early Rhode Island settlers quickly grasped the strategic value of Beavertail Point. The colonial records of Jamestown refer to the existence of a watch-house at Beavertail in 1705, while orders for the building of a beacon and maintenance of a regular watch at Beavertail are recorded in an entry dated 9 June 1712. The purpose of all this vigilance was probably strictly military, to warn of the approach of hostile foreign ships, but it is possible that the beacon was sometimes used to help guide merchant vessels into Narragansett Bay. in 1738 the General Assembly of Rhode Island authorized the construction of a lighthouse at Beavertail, but nothing was done until 1749, when a 58-foot wooden tower was erected under the direction of Peter Harrison of Newport, one of America's most eminent Colonial architects. This lighthouse was the third one to be established in America. It burned down in 1753, whereupon Harrison supervised the construction of a 64-foot fieldstone tower which was completed in 1755. This structure was burned by British troops when the occupying forces evacuated Newport in 1779. The lighthouse was repaired in 1783-84 and was used until 1856 when the present tower and keeper's house were completed. By that time the old tower was extremely decrepit and it was quickly torn down. The second Beavertail Light was one of the most important lighthouses on the Atlantic coast, for it marked the entrance to the East Passage of Narragansett Bay, which led in turn to Newport Harbor, one of colonial America's largest and busiest ports. As a result, mariners of the period often referred to it as "Newport Light." The present lighthouse still serves as a major aid to coastal navigators.

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Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Depot, Wyoming Illinois

Wyoming, Illinois was established in 1834 by General Samuel Thomas. Thomas was born in Connecticut and had been a resident of Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania. The town was charted on April 2, 1836. Although the Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy Depot was not built in Wyoming until 1871, the railroad had been established in 1855 in order to create a transportation link between Chicago and the Mississippi River at Quincy, Illinois and Burlington, Iowa. The final connection to the River was completed in 1856. In 1871, when the railroad built the Wyoming, Illinois depot, there were 893 miles of track. A second railroad, the Peoria and Rock Island Railroad, was also sought by Wyoming citizens. The Peoria and Rock Island was organized in 1867 and consolidated with the Rock Island & Pacific Railroad in 1869. In June of 1871, it dispatched a construction train to Toulon, and one month later the first regular train went through Wyoming. The Rock Island Railroad depot, which originally stood 200' west of the C,B,& Q depot, is no longer standing. Although the two railroads contributed to the economic development of the community, the C,B, & Q depot is the sole surviving railroad structure in the community. The C,B, & Q railroad was an important shipping link for the greater Wyoming area. Like most service towns in agricultural regions in Illinois the citizens of Wyoming recognized the need for a railroad to transport its rich coal deposits, cheese, grain, cattle, hogs, and other products to Peoria and Chicago markets. Without the rail connections, the agricultural development of Stark County would have been minimal because the cost of getting the product to market by back roads would have been too great. The railroad was also a critical necessity for Wyoming because Illinois River transportation to Chicago was unreliable due to its limited depth and freezing over in the winter.

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Dwight-Derby House, Medfield Massachusetts

Established as a town during the Plantation period (1620-1675), also known as the First Period of English settlement in eastern Massachusetts, Medfield is one of fourteen towns carved, in whole or in part, from the territory known as the Dedham Grant (1636). In addition to Medfield, all or parts of the following communities were once in the Dedham Grant: the present Dedham, Westwood, Norwood, Needham, Wellesley, Natick, Dover, Walpole, Norfolk, Wrentham, Franklin, and Bellingham, as well as the Dorchester, West Roxbury, and Hyde Park neighborhoods of the city of Boston. In 1649, the inhabitants of Dedham petitioned the General Court for a grant of land west of the Charles River, or the area now known as Millis and Medway. Medfield was set off from Dedham in 1650, its territory then encompassing the present towns of Medfield, Millis, and Medway. In 1651, the General Court recognized Medfield as a town. The first land grants in the Medfield area, once known by the native name Boggestow and later as Dedham Village, date to 1643, and constitute some of the earliest expansion of English settlement west of the settlement cluster at Dedham. Most of the first English settlers in Medfield were from Dedham, Braintree, and Weymouth. They were married sons from large families who sought opportunities to use their skills and so support their own families. Both the town center and the river meadow served as principal foci for First Period settlement in Medfield. Early settlement clusters, dating from the third quarter of the ia century onward, included the Bridge Street Plain on Bridge Street, the South Plain area near the present Philip and Spring Streets, and the town center area near Vine Brook.

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Clatskanie IOOF Hall, Clatskanie Oregon

Constructed in 1926 the Clatskanie Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) Hall was built as the town's first large concrete building, and remains the most imposing structure in town. The construction of the new highway in 1918 and the booming economy of the 1920s made Clatskanie more connected and prosperous than any other time in its previous 75-year history. It is at this opportune time that Clatskanie's IOOF Lodge decided to build a grand building to be designed by noted Portland architect Ernst Kroner. Krone previously completed the design for the Portland IOOF Grand Lodge two years earlier, and was responsible for a number of institutional buildings. Immediately upon its opening, the building became the community's social and cultural center. With the movie theater and Post Office on the first floor, and dental and law offices, meeting spaces, and the lodge hall itself on the second, the IOOF Hall soon became the community gathering place. Whether it was to attend a vaudeville show in 1927, watch the first local "talkie" in 1930, meet to organize Oregon's first People's Utility District in 1940, attend a war bond benefit dance in 1945, participate in a Grange or Kiwanis meeting, pick up the mail, or consult a lawyer, the IOOF Hall was central to life in Clatskanie. Here one accomplished life's business, was entertained, and ran into friends. By the early 1960s importance of the hall faded as more residents traveled outside the town for entertainment and professional services, and interest in social organizations such as IOOF began to wane. The building continued to house a theater, community gatherings, and retail spaces and professional offices for several more decades. From its founding in the mid-nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth century, Clatskanie was a relatively isolated rural town and its social life revolved around local organizations. The Clatskanie IOOF Hall was built by one of these social organizations during the economic optimism of the 1920s and soon after a new highway connected the town to the outside world in 1918. The IOOF Hall was the first, and by far the grandest of five fire-resistant concrete and/or masonry commercial structures built in the late 1920s.

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Attucks High School, Hopkinsville Kentucky

Named for Revolutionary War hero and African American Crispus Attucks, the school was designed by local architect John T. Waller and constructed by the Forbes Manufacturing Company for a cost of $17,640.00. Construction of a gymnasium and classroom addition increased the size of the school in 1957. The improvements in 1957 permitted education that segregated whites from blacks in Hopkinsville until 1967, when the Christian County School System officially desegregated all of its facilities. Unlike many formerly-black schools at the end of segregated schooling, this building continued to be used as an integrated middle school for fifth and sixth-grade students through 1988, when it was closed as a school and ceased to be used. Attucks High School has adapted through the years to accommodate the evolution of Hopkinsville's educational system. The majority of schoolhouses in the colored school system of the late 1800s and early 1900s were eventually demolished due to poor quality and lack of use. Attucks High School, however, remains and maintains its structural integrity over a century after it was built. As time passed and African Americans gained in both population and influence, Attucks High School simply adapted to changes and expanded its campus to accommodate the growing need for educational facilities among the community. When overcrowding became an issue, a large addition was constructed in 1957 that doubled the classroom space and provided a state-of-the-art gymnasium complete with a performance stage. When integration was enacted in Christian County, instead of abandoning the building, the school board converted it to a middle school for Hopkinsville's newly-established integrated school system. The renamed Attucks Middle School then functioned for over twenty years as a middle school, gaining significance well beyond the African American population as it began to serve the entire community.

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Tivoli Theater, Mishawaka Indiana

In 1925, the year the Tivoli Theater opened to the public, the population of Mishawaka was 22,000. Approximately five other vaudeville theaters were in operation at that time in the city and another six theaters were open in nearby South Bend. The Blackstone (2,200 seats/1921) and Palace (2,700 seats/1922) theaters in South Bend were both larger and more opulent than the Tivoli Theater. In Mishawaka, most of the other existing theaters were built in the 1910s or earlier and nearly all had seating for only 1,000 or less. The Century (600 seats/1909) and Temple (500 seats/1915) theaters in downtown Mishawaka were the oldest in the community, had minimal seating capacity, and were both created from remodeled, existing buildings. Backers of the Tivoli Theater not only intended to build a first-class facility for Mishawaka but also one which would rival theaters in South Bend. A May 21, 1925 article published in the South Bend News-Times on the opening night stated, "the Tivoli, while not the largest theater in this section, is unsurpassed by any theater anywhere for intrinsic beauty, and it is wholeheartedly asserted that Mishawaka indeed has a theater of which it may be most justly proud." One year before the opening of the Tivoli Theater, local civic leaders formed the Mishawaka Theater Corporation to manage and oversee the construction of the theater building. Fifteen individuals were listed on the incorporation papers. With the exception of Reuben Levine of Chicago, Illinois, the general contractor for the project, all the men were either from Mishawaka or South Bend. Some backers for the theater included the then-mayor Duncan J. Campbell, the theater manager-to-be Oscar J. Lambiotte, and prominent business entrepreneur Adolph Kamm. Also listed were Henry and Mary Buckel, the owners of the property and residence at that site (structure moved); for their interest, they were paid 1,000 shares of common stock of the 10,000 available.

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Point Cabrillo Light Station, Caspar California

Point Cabrillo was the light of the smaller lumber schooners that served the many narrow "doghole" ports of the Mendocino coast. Prior to the construction of the Point Cabrillo Lighthouse in 1909, no light existed on the coast between Point Arena and Cape Mendocino, a distance of 115 miles. Unlike the larger ships in coastwise traffic, the schooners hugged the shoreline, often at great risk and peril. The timber-based economy of the region in the late 19th and early 20th century was totally dependent on the doghole ports and landings to transport the lumber that was building California. The lumber required to rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 quake further increased lumbering traffic along the Mendocino coast. After several decades of political pressure from lumber interests and Mendocino City business leaders, Congress authorized $50,000 for a light station at Point Cabrillo in 1906. Its first beam of light shown on June 10, 1909. It is not without symbolism that the whole station (except for the fireproof oil bunker) was constructed entirely of wood. As the doghole ports and redwood coastal schooners gave way to the railroads and highways in the mid-twentieth century, the lighthouse continued to serve the needs of the commercial fishing fleet and the remaining coastal freight traffic. The lighthouse is a substantial structure built to contain a Fresnel lens (in this case 3rd order) and its architectural integrity is complete (including the in-place lens). From a distance the structure resembles a country church with the lighthouse tower forming the "steeple" in the front central facade. A number of wood-frame lighthouses of this configuration were built in Washington and Oregon in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Point Cabrillo is the only one constructed in California, however. The structure's massive Craftsman brackets and all-frame construction make it an ideal design for this, the lighthouse of the north coast lumber fleet.

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