Loch Aerie - Lockwood House, Glenloch Pennsylvania
Loch Aerie was designed by architect Addison Hutton in 1865 for William E. Lockwood, who made his fortune manufacturing paper collars and folding boxes, and lost much of it promoting local railroads. The house remains with few changes. The fine landscape was designed by landscape architect Charles P. Miller.
This house is impressive in its architectural detail, scale, proportion and use of materials, on both the exterior and the interior, and has only minor alterations. It combines Italianate massing with Italianate and High Victorian Gothic details. Lockwood was interested in good lighting and ventilation systems and incorporated many of his ideas into the design of the house.
The house, an irregular cross shape with an asymmetrical tover, measures approximately 77' by 48'. It is two-and- a-half stories with a four-story tower.
The following was published in the "Germantown Telegraph," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 12, 1877:
A visit to "Glen-Loch," the country seat of W. E. Lockwood, Esq., in Chester County- Description of one of the largest estates in Pennsylvania.
One of the beauty spots of Eastern Pennsylvania, and the peer of any of the suburban homes and vast farms and resided on by prominent citizens of Philadelphia, along the line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, is "Glen-Loch," the country seat of Mr. William E. Lockwood, of the firm of W. E. & E. Dunbar Lockwood, manufacturers of patent folding boxes, envelopes, tags, etc., Nos. 251 & 253 South Third Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
"Glen-Loch" is a fraction over twenty five miles from Philadelphia, five miles from West Chester, seven miles from Downingtown, and there is a large circle of railroad connections of main roads and branches for thirteen miles a round. No homestead in Chester County is more charmingly situated than "Glen-Loch," and the delightful natural location is enhanced by the artistic taste displayed by Mr. Lockwood in improving his large estate, and the practical scientific skill he has shown in providing his country house with every available comfort and convenience, and health giving arrangements. The estate is contiguous to the most beautiful portions of the lovely Chester Valley, and from the windows of the tall, massive, stone tower that surmounts the family mansion a scene of rural beauty spreads out in a broad panorama for over twenty miles around, such as the eye rarely gets an opportunity to feast itself upon. Through the courtesy of Mr. Lockwood the writer was not only enabled to enjoy the beautiful prospect from the tower, but was afforded an opportunity to learn something about the characteristics of the estate.
The mansion mentioned stands in the center of a splendid lawn of about six acres in extent, the surpassing beauty of which is due in part to the skill of Mr. Charles P. Miller, the Fairmount Park Landscape Artist. The mansion, which is one of the stateliest structures in Chester County, was built by Mr. Lockwood in 1865 from designs furnished by Addison Hutton, Architect. It is built of Pennsylvania blue marble and blue limestone quarried on the estate. It is of mixed architecture and combines the "German Schloss," the French Cottage orne, and English Swiss Villa styles. Only mention can be made in the limits of this article of the scientific knowledge displayed by Mr. Lockwood in the drainage and ventilating plans adopted by him in making the residence perfectly healthy, the exclusion of all foul air and gases and the presence of plenty of pure, fresh air in every room and an abundance of light. The cellar is perfectly dry, and the continued excellent health of Mr. Lockvood and all the members of the family is a proof of the true hygienic principles used in the construction of the building. The mansion has two stories and an alpine roof. The bay windows are provided with stained glass, and a feature is the spacious hall, from which runs upwards to the top floor a wide and massive stairway. There are several porches around the building commanding fine views, and so arranged as not to exclude the sunlight from the building. The rooms are all large and airy, and furnished in superior style. Burgular alarms in the bedrooms connect with the residences of employees on the estate, and the heating is furnished by ordinary heaters and several low grates. There is hot and cold water in every room, and plenty of bathing facilities. Under the tower is a large iron tank holding 900 gallons of water, and the water pipes are tapped thirty five feet below to supply fresh water to the lower part of the house. That the mansion stands on high ground may be known from the fact that water will run one way towards the Schuylkill and the other way towards Brandywine Creek, poured on the ground near the buildings. On the lawn and in front of the residence is a very pretty miniature lake, large enough for boating purposes. It has a stone embankment around covered with creeping plants, and in the center stands a huge crane, a fine work of art, and a four inch pipe produces a spray that completely covers the crane with water. Near the lake is a handsome marble fountain imported by the late Vito Viti, and which cost $750.00. The springs that supply water for the lake and fountain and other purposes is at an elevation of one hundred feet and 2600 feet distant. The water is forced by gravity through two and three inch pipes, and runs 12,400 gallons in twenty four hours, and there is a constant supply.
The water supply of "Glen-Loch" is a peculiarity. It comes from a point south of the Lancaster Turnpike and Pennsylvania Railroad and from mica slate and flint rock, twenty five in number and at such elevation that 17,000 feet of pipe supplies the entire estate with water by the force of gravity. It can be carried twenty feet above the highest elevation where it is used, and the water is of the purest and softest kind. There are some twelve or fourteen other springs on the estate that yield hard water, but none of them are used to any extent. The thermometrical tests of these springs during hot weather vary from 52 - 65 degrees.
The "Glen-Loch" tract covers an extent of 684 acres of very superior land. There are four railroad stations on the estate, viz: Glen-Lock Station Pennsylvania RR; Woodland Station West Chester Branch Penna. RR; Swedes' Ford Station on the Schuylkill Branch Penns Branch Penna. RR, and the White-Horse Station on the Chester Valley branch of the Reading RR. The 684 acres include the ground for railroad tunrpike and public road purposes. The shape of the tract is irregular, but may be said to be bounded on the north by the Chester Valley Railroad; east and south by the Schuylkill and West Chester branches of the Penna RR, and the large tract of Mr. William Weightman, of Powers and Weightman, and on the west by the large holdings of Mr. George Jacobs, Dr. Carey and others. The elevation extends in a straight line along the entire width of the Great Valley and from this elevation the entire view of the valley, which is thirty five miles long, may be obtained, extending from Bridgeport and Norristown to its entrance into the Piqua or Small valley near Coatesville.
The estate was formerly a Welsh tract of 500 acres, and the title deeds say it vas held on a lease from W. Penn to Peter Young and from Peter Young to Hugh Roberts, of whom President George B. Roberts of the Penna. RR, is a lineal descendant. The tract has been subdivided and has been in the possession of General Persifor Frazer of the Revolution and also of the family of Frazer Smith. The purchase of the estate was made by Elon Dunbar, Mr. W. E. Lockwood's step-father, from estate of William Harmer, in 1849, and Mr. Lockwood from Mr. Dunbar in April 1863. When Mr. Dunbar purchased there was 113 acres. Mr. Lockwood has been making purchases adjoining the original tract at different times and from 136 acres it has increased to 684 acres.
Mr. Lockwood states that the preservation of his health and that of his family was his main motive in becoming one of what are known as "Gentlemen Farmers," and now tips the beam at 185 pounds, he is satisfied that he has made an advantageous change from town to country.
The "Glen-Loch" acres have been analyzed by I. Blogett Brittain Esq with the following results: Brown Hematite - pure metalic iron 50.67 sulphur none. Phosphorus 298. Prctesquidoxide of Manganese 267. After iron ores come the blue marble and blue limestone quarries. There is a deposit of magnesia limestone for building, purposes; also a deposit of sand for glass, and north of that is a deposit of "Kaolin" and an inferior quality of iron ore, and the summit of the north valley is sandstone.
Mr. Lockwood began to pay some attention to livestock in 1868, when he purchased twenty five head of Ayrshires, but about that time he was elected president of the Union Paper Collar Co. and had to reside in New York for ten years. He was thus forced to relinguish the raising of stock, but he secured the services of competent farmers who attended to what stock he required for domestic purposes. Mr. Lockwood intends to divide his tract into three small farms, consisting of the property south of the Penna RR and will include twelve acres of woodland,, which will be kept to preserve the water supply. Four hundred acres north of the Penna RR will be retained as the homestead farms of two hundred acres each. On the western most tract is St. Pauls Episcopal Church erected in 1828 by the Rev. Dr. Levi Bull and which was improved in 1874 at an expense of $8000. A fine parsonage will be erected during the coming summer.
It is estimated that large portions of Mr. Lockwood's estate are worth $1000 an acre for mining purposes, and Mr. Lockwood argues that Farmers are the largest consumers of iron.
Mr. Lockwood has his own system of slushing and ventilation, and he claims that his plan of slushing will remove all solid matter whatever deposited that causes impurities He studied his plan of ventilation for three years and his ventilation pipes are known as "Lockwood Gallons."
A considerable portion of Glen-Loch is devoted to raising grain, and the regular orthodox system is pursued in grain planting and raising. A fine tennant house, a spacious stable, a gas house, two ice houses, and a number of other buildings are situated on the property.
The Pennsylvania Railroad cuts directly through Mr. Lockwood's estate, and the portion on the Lancaster avenue has a hemlock hedge and barbed wire fence. On the lawn are a number of rare trees, including ash, sycamores, European beech, "blue spruce, American tulip poplar, weeping spruce, etc.
The estate is connected over the Pennsylvania Railroad by a number of bridges, one of which was built of iron cost $15,000. The railroad company has a water reservoir near Glen-Loch station that holds 250,000 gallons and water comes from Mr. Lockwood's estate.
The "Daily Local News," West Chester, Pennsylvania, on October 19, 1877 reported:
Wm. E. Lockwood, of Glenlock, has a telephone in his house also one in the P.R.R. tower so that in case of invasion of his domicile by burglars or tramps he can call the P.R.R. hands to his assistance. The Railroad Company also keep a police car on the siding there to lock up all loafers and tramps found in the vicinity. Mr. Lockwood also has a very complete "burglar. alarm" which connects with every door and window in his house, and borrows his neighbors "bull dogs" for outside alarm at night. Also he has a formidable array of repeating revolving and breech-loading pistols and rifles and we understand he thinks of adding a gattling gun and jackass howitzer, and yet he retires to his little bed very uneasy as to his safety during the night. We should think the tramp would give his place a wide berth in their travels but through his influence they are gobbled up at the rate of a dozen per night in and about Glenloch.
The "Daily Local News," West Chester, Pennsylvania, on May 1, 1936 reported:
One of the most interesting houses in the Chester Valley is that of the late William E. Lockwood, at Glen Loch. It was built in the year 1865, with its towers and bull's-eye windows. William A. Stephenson, late of West Bernard street, West Chester, was the boss stone mason, and the walls were well built. The architect was Addison Hutton, who, five years later, designed the first building for what is now State Teachers College. Mr, Hutton, as the story goes, was on his way to Glen Loch in response to a summons from Mr. Lockwood to consult with him in regard to the plans, when he was told that Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, had been shot. All the people were so shocked and horrified that there was no talk about house plans that day, and the dwelling was not erected until some months later. One of the art treasures in the home today is a painting of George Washington on horseback - a handsome piece of work which once was loaned to the late John Wanamaker, long ago, to be exhibited in his Market street window.