Historic Structures

Kingston Train Station, South Kingston Rhode Island

In the 1830s, the principal mode of travel from Boston to New York was by stagecoach to Providence, with transfer to steamer from Providence to New York. As the ride could be difficult and the route often compromised by weather, it became increasingly apparent that alternative land-based transportation was a necessity. In 1835, the Boston and Providence Railroad was opened from Boston to India Point, east of the Providence Harbor. A second rail line on the west side of the harbor, the New York, Providence, and Boston Railroad opened in 1837 from Providence to Stonington, Connecticut. This line was known popularly as the Stonington Line. Passengers travelling through were ferried across the harbor between the two lines until 1847 when they were joined. The final allrail route between Boston and New York was not completed until 1889 when the drawbridge over the Thames River between Groton and New London, Connecticut was completed. In 1892, the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad leased the New York, Providence, and Boston, and in 1893 acquired the Boston and Providence line, subsequently operating the run between Boston and New York. The opening of the railroad to Stonington in 1837 was an important occasion for South Kingstown, for it made the small town one of the first in the nation to be served by this relatively new means of transportation. The first American passenger train had begun operation seven years earlier and there were only 2,000 miles of track in the United States at the time. The new railroad was put through what was to become the village of West Kingston. The first Kingston depot was built west of the tracks to the north of Waites Corner Road, an east-west thoroughfare in the village. At the time, there was a store adjacent to the depot and a neighboring residence, otherwise the area was undeveloped.

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Westerly Train Station, Westerly Rhode Island

Much of Westerly's historic period development is owed to its location on major transportation arteries that linked the major cities of the Northeast. Located on the headwaters of the Pawcatuck River, the most significant river route in southern Rhode Island, the city initially served as an important waterborne travel and shipping point for the surrounding countryside. By the mid-seventeenth century, a system of roads, including Post Road (U.S. Highway 1), was established and connected Westerly with Providence and Boston to the north and New York to the south. Settlement, however, remained sparse in the small village until the mid-nineteenth century, when the Industrial Revolution began to gather steam. Westerly's position as a shipping center was augmented by the completion of the Stonington and Providence Railroad (S&P) through the village in 1837. The 47-mile Stonington Road was constructed only two years after the opening of New England's first railroad, the Boston and Providence (B&P). Before the establishment of those rail lines, travel between New York and Boston was difficult. The overland route along winding Post Road took several days to complete. Ship travel, while faster and more comfortable, required rounding the arm of Cape Cod, a dangerous journey during storms. The B&P line provided the first viable alternative to ship travel around the Cape. After its completion, goods were transported by rail to India Point in Providence and offloaded onto ships bound for New York via Narragansett Bay. The completion of the Stonington Road made the trip faster and safer by allowing shippers to bypass the sometimes treacherous sea passage around Point Judith at the southwest corner of Narragansett Bay and providing direct access to the relatively calm Long Island Sound.

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Westmoreland Glass Company – Specialty Glass, Grapeville Pennsylvania

The Specialty Glass Company was organized about 1889 and was originaly located at East Liverpool, Ohio. The plant made cream pitchers, goblets, tumblers, and glass novelties. In 1899 Specialty Glass Company moved to Grapeville because of the abundant natural gas supply there. The firm also acquired house-lots that it auctioned off to its employees, and glass workers were allowed to pay out their mortgages in monthly installments from their wages. After the West Brothers and Ira A, Brainard of Pittsburgh gained control of the company, the company's name was changed to the Westmoreland Speciality Glass Company. The company produced condiments, such as vinegar, baking powder, and mustard, and glass items containing candy during the First World War. During its last thirty years the principal products of the Westmoreland Glass Company were milk glass reproductions. The company's chicken and animal covered dishes and other vessels of gleaming milk glass were produced until the factory closed. The factory employed 3 09 workers in 1916, 380 workers in 1919, 231 workers in 1931, 197 workers in 1935 and 133 workers in 1947. In 1982 the factory ceased production. The Westmoreland Glass Company complex is situated on Brush Creek and adjacent to the mainline of the Pennsylvania Railroad in Grapeville. Hot Metal Shop: red brick, common bond with corrugated sheet metal covering sides and upper level; one-and-ahalf stories with full basement; gable roof of sheet metal has monitor with casement windows; rubble stone foundation; two brick stacks with decorative brick dentil work. Interior: wood trusses and timber post and beam structural system in original building; steel Howe and steel frame structural system in addition; two sixteen-pot furnaces of common bond brick, one is original, one was rebuilt in 1950; furnaces supported by massive pilasters in basement; brick floors; glory holes for reheating glass; loft used for formers, fitters and snaps; original molds in the mold cleaning shop. Machinery: early H.L. Dixon Company lehrs. Machine Shop/Mold Shop: red brick, common bond; multipaned double-hung arched windows with triple brick voussiors; brick bearing walls with timber post and beam system; roof has timber rafters; pattern shop has many original patterns and an early milling machine. Mixing. Resorting, Warehouse, Packing, and Storage Buildings: three interconnected buildings facing the railroad tracks, one housed the kilns and lehrs, one an office and the last addition, a carpenter shop with original gift shop; red brick, common bond; one story with full basement; rubble stone foundation; brick bearing walls with timber post and beam structural system; brick vaults in basement; multipaned casement windows; original kilns from 1889 and pan lehrs from 1940. Decorating Room and Cooper Shop/Gift Shop: red brick, common bond; one story with full basement; multipane double-hung windows with double voussiors. Mold Storage, Packing, and Printing Buildings: four additions to the rear of original buildings ca. 1920s; red brick, stretcher bond; 1 story with full basement; Machinery: 1930s decorating lehr. Blower House: red brick, common bond; one story; two Sturtevant #8 Blowers.

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Jeannette Glass Company, Jeannette Pennsylvania

The Jeannette Glass Company was incorporated in 1898. Originally called the Jeannette Bottle Works, this firm made hand-blown glass bottles and flint glass tableware that have since become collectors' items. With the introduction of automated bottle-blowing and glass making equipment the firm developed new products, including sidewalk glass and prism tile for store fronts, as well as depression glassware in the 1930s. Products made by the Jeannette Glass Company were sold throughout the United States and ninety foreign countries. Maurice L. Stonehill, a Cleveland industrialist, acquired the Jeannette Glass Company in 1960 and merged it with the McKee Glass Company in 1962. Forming the Jeannette Glass Company, he closed the Chambers Avenue plant and merged all production into the Bullit Avenue plant of the former McKee Glass Company. The firm employed 243 workers in 1916, 226 workers in 1919, 394 workers in 1935, 588 workers in 1947 and 300 workers in 1960. The Jeannette Glass Company became the Jeannette Corporation in 1971, and in 1989 American Architectural Metals Inc. of New York acquired the Jeannette Glass factory site. Manufacturing Building No. 1: red brick, common bond and corrugated metal; three stories; triple gable roof with thirteen ventilators across each of two roofs, four ventilators on third roof, and tall brick chimney on second roof; steel trusses and steel structural system; multipaned casement windows; additions attached to this main structure includes a tall reinforced concrete storage building. Manufacturing Building No, 2: red brick, common bond; two stories; gable roof with metal monitor and tall brick chimney; Jeannette Glass in white tile; steel trusses and structural system; interior kiln and machinery can be seen through broken windows; tile, concrete block, and brick additions to both sides. Storage: red brick, common bond; one story. Mold Cleaning and Engine Room: red brick, common bond; two stories; flat roof; hinged windows; arched windows with brick voussoirs; exterior brick piers and corbelling at cornice. Carton Storage and Shipping: located on railroad; red brick, common bond; two stories; arched windows with single and double voussoirs. Old Carton Storage Building: attached to Building No. 1; burned in 1988 and left only exterior brick walls; red brick, common bond; one story; single, double and triple voussoirs over arched windows. The entire factory was demolished in 1992.

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Lower Nicolet West Front Lighthouse, Barbeau Michigan

In 1931, in order to accommodate the increasing number of larger ore ships plying the shallow waters of Lake Nicolet and the St. Nary's River en route to and from the Soo Locks at Sault Ste. Marie, the U. S. Corps of Engineers undertook a large-scale dredging project to revise the channel system around the St. Mary's River islands. The channels served by lights at the Lower Nicolet Cut in the St. Mary's River were among those selected to be widened and deepened, and corresponding changes and additions to aids to navigation in the area were planned. Among those to be undertaken on Neebish Island, a double syst of front and rear range lights for the east and west channels were needed, in addition to many changes in the buoy system. As financial constraints had been further tightened by the Depression it was decided to alter and reuse two cylindrical, steel-plate towers (originally constructed in 1907) that were no longer needed at the discontinued Windmill Point site in Detroit, rather than to build new skeleton towers from more recent designs. The towers were to be erected on approximately 12.65 acres of land, some of which, as it turned out, could be acquired only through condemnation, a process that delayed the proposed construction by several months. The towers were well underway by the end of Fiscal Year 1931, according to the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Lighthouses, which noted that, Lower Nicolet West Range Lights have been started and the concrete bases finished, temporary structures having been erected to serve in the meantime. 4Erection of the steel superstructure is now in progress. . .

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